sos-1The National Conference on Sociology of Sanitation, organized by Sulabh International Centre for Action Sociology in collaboration with Sulabh International Social Service Organisation, was held on January 28 and 29, 2013 at Mavalankar Auditorium, New Delhi. The inaugural session had dignitaries like Hon’ble Mrs. Meira Kumar, Speaker, Lok Sabha, Hon’ble Mr. Jairam Ramesh, Minister of Rural Development, Government of India, Hon’ble Mr. Bharatsinh Madhavsinh Solanki, Minister of State (Independent Charge), Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Government of India and Professor Yogendra Singh, Emeritus Professor, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, as honoured guests and speakers. The function was attended by esteemed sociologists, social scientists and sanitation experts from all over the country, who were kind enough to contribute their scholarly papers for the occasion. The big auditorium was packed to the full with participating scholars, media and electronic personnel.

Inaugural Function

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The function started at 11 a.m. with the distinguished participants, sitting on the dais being garlanded, presented bouquets and shawls by Dr. Bindeshwar Pathak, Founder of the Sulabh Sanitation Movement, and his wife, Mrs. Amola Pathak. They included Hon’ble Mrs. Meira Kumar, Hon’ble Mr. Jairam Ramesh, Hon’ble Mr. Bharatsinh Madhavsinh Solanki, Professor Yogendra Singh and   This was followed by singing of Sulabh Prayer by one and all present on the occasion. Thereafter to introduce the activities of Sulabh, videos prepared by Voice of America and a French Company were played, depicting the sanitation scenario in India. Showing realistic scenes of bucket or dry toilets being manually cleaned by scavenger women, the presentation accessed to Dr. Bindeshwar Pathak talking about the gloomy scenario on the sanitation front. He personally intervened in the matter, innovating, inventing and developing a two-pit pour-flush compost toilet technology to replace bucket or dry toilets, which did not need cleansing by scavengers, who, in their turn were being taken away from the inhuman and filthy job, educated and trained to earn their livelihood in a respectful manner through vocations like making eatables, beauty care, embroidery, stitching etc. They were thus brought into the mainstream of society, followed by social interaction with other communities in society leading to visiting temples, calling upon dignitaries like the Hon’ble President of India, Hon’ble President of the Congress Party, and Hon’ble Prime Minister (late Mr. Rajiv Gandhi), being invited to attend the General Assembly Session at the United Nations. These historical moments were shown in photographs displayed during the show.

sos-3Mr. Arun Pathak, Chief Coordinator, Sulabh International Social Service Organisation, delivering his welcome address said, “It is significant that the hall where we are all sitting was named after Shri Mavalankar, the first Speaker of the Lok Sabha, in independent India, and today we have among us the first lady Speaker of the esteemed House. The Hon’ble Speaker and the esteemed Ministers have to deal with cut motions in the House, whereas Sulabh International is concerned with motion, as such (in some cases, loose one, as well)”. Mr. Pathak expressed gratefulness for the esteemed guests, scholars, scientists and media and electronic personnel to have spared their time and made it convenient to attend the conference that was going to introduce a new vista in the sphere of sociology as well as sanitation.

Mr. Arun Pathak was followed by Mrs. Usha Chaumar, Hony. President, Sulabh International Social Service Organisation (a liberated scavenger woman from Alwar, Rajasthan), who expressed her great pleasure specially to see Hon’ble Mr. Jairam Ramesh at the function, who, she said, talked so freely that she used to enjoy his company. Always referring to Dr. Pathak as sos-4Founder Sir, she said, when he went to Alwar and met her and her companions, he asked them to give up the work they were doing, on being told that they were scavengers cleaning human excreta from bucket toilets and carrying it on their heads in a vessel to throw it away at a place outside the habitation. He further said he would make them take up respectful jobs after proper training. No one among them was ready to be convinced. When some of them ventured to take a chance, what happened was an unbelievable transformation. They now sit and dine with people belonging to higher classes, attend functions like marriage and birthdays at their residence, visit temples and offer worship there. Led by Founder Sir they have called upon VIPs like Hon’ble President of India, Hon’ble Ministers, visited UNO in New York and gone to Paris and Africa and attended high-level meetings.

Mrs. Chaumar was followed by Mrs. Mannu Ghosh, a widow from Vrindavan who expressed her gratitude for the help from Sulabh of Rs. 1000 every month being given to the widows, besides ambulances and medical care there.

Journey in Sanitation

sos-5Dr. Bindeshwar Pathak after welcoming the esteemed guests, including sociologists from all over the country, the rehabilitated scavenger women from Rajasthan, Bihar and New Delhi and the widows from Vrindavan, began telling his own story as to how he started his journey in the field of sociology and sanitation. Dr. Pathak said: “I took up sociology as a subject in B.A. Part-I in Patna University and later as a subject in the Honours Class. I wanted to be a lecturer in the subject; however, after passing my Secondary School Examination, I became a school teacher. In the year 1968, by sheer coincidence, I joined the Bihar Gandhi Centenary Celebration Committee as a social worker. The General Secretary of the Committee asked me to engage myself fully to fulfill the dreams of Mahatma Gandhi – his unfinished agenda to restore the human rights and dignity of ‘Untouchable’ scavengers. This, he said, would be the best tribute from the committee to the Mahatma. I told him my story when, as a boy, I, out of curiosity, touched an ‘Untouchable’ Dom lady who used to come to deliver utensils made of bamboo at my house and after whose departure, my grandmother used to sprinkle water to purify the place. My grandmother seeing me having touched the lady forced me to take cow-dung and cow urine with Ganga water to purify me. I added, I belong to Brahmin caste, and further, I am not an engineer to find out an alternative to the toilets needing manual cleaning. The General Secretary looked at me seriously and said, ‘I don’t know your caste or whether you are an engineer or not, I see light in you having seen your dedication and commitment’ ”.

Dr. Pathak further said: “My background of Sociology prodded me to build a rapport with the community for which I had to work. I went to Bettiah, Champaran in Bihar, to live with the scavengers, the place, where incidentally, Mahatma Gandhi started his Satyagraha movement. My father and father-in- law had turned hostile seeing me going to work for scavengers. One afternoon, while going with some friends to the town, I saw a boy in a red shirt being attacked by a bull. People rushed to help him, in the meanwhile someone shouted from the back of the crowd that the boy belonged to the ‘Untouchable’ colony. On this everybody left him in an injured state. We took him to the local hospital but he died on the way. That day I took the solemn vow, forgetting my family, my caste, to work to fulfill Mahatma Gandhi’s dream to rescue the ‘Untouchables’ from the shackles of slavery that are 5000 years old. Once again, the background of Sociology came to my help indicating the need for some tools to test the hypothesis one is going to work upon. The tool, here, would be a technology that could find an alternative to bucket or dry toilet which needed manual scavenging. One such technology available was the sewerage system, which was costly to construct and maintain and hence existed in very few towns. I went through literature on the subject including the book, Excreta Disposal for Rural Areas and Small Communities by Edmund A. Wagner and J.N. Lanoix. Thereafter I innovated, invented and developed two-pit pour-flush Sulabh toilet, where one pit is used at a time; when it is filled up the flow is diverted to the other pit. After two years the residue in the first pit gets converted into bio-fertiliser which can be taken out by the householder himself. Sulabh alone has converted 1.3 million bucket toilets into Sulabh Shauchalayas and lakhs of scavengers have been freed from their inhuman profession of manually cleaning and carrying human excreta”. The Sulabh Founder said, “To rehabilitate the scavengers, I took help of one of the tools of Mahatma Gandhi – the tool of nonviolence. I didn’t tear or burn the books of Vedas or Manusmriti. I persuaded the upper caste people and Pandits of temples to accept the scavengers as members of the society. I took them to Jagannath temple where after initial resistance the Pandits were convinced after discussion to let the erstwhile scavenger ladies perform Pooja in the temple. After the Nathdwara visit the scavengers were given audience by the Hon’ble President of India, Mr. R. Venkataraman and the Hon’ble Prime Minister late Mr. Rajiv Gandhi. They were taken to Jagannath temple, Alwar. The head priest Pandit Devendra Kumar Sharma is here today amongst us. He will be awarded a cheque of ` 5 lakh by Sulabh in this function. There after they were taken to Varanasi where they worshipped Lord Shiva. The Pandits from Varanasi are also present here among us. They will take oath at this function today to eliminate untouchability from our society. The erstwhile scavengers have attended the UN General Assembly session and visited the Statue of Liberty in New York. They visited France to attend the Summit at Le Havre and Marseilles as well as Phoenix Ashram of Mahatma Gandhi in South Africa. The tool for this transformation has been education and training in vocations like making eatables, beauty care, stitching and embroidery in a Sulabh institute called Nai Disha in Rajasthan. They are sitting here among us in blue saries. Similarly, rehabilitated scavenger ladies from Arrah (Bihar) as well as New Delhi will be given blue saries at lunch today. Their children get free education, school dress and books and stationery in the Sulabh Public School in New Delhi”.

sos-6Dr. Pathak said he termed the present National Conference as one on Sociology of Sanitation as he was convinced that sanitation should be included as a discipline in sociology as core problem areas embodying sanitation like social deprivation, hygiene, ecology, poverty etc. require sociological intervention. Dr. Pathak was followed by Prof. Yogendra Singh, Emeritus Professor, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, who is a renowned sociologist. He said, sociology emerged as a subject much later after history, philosophy and political science. Social awareness, individuals’ relationship with one another and their participation as a community – all these are vital factors in sociological studies. Sanitation, hygiene, education are the sociological inter-locking factors. It is a well-known truism that sociology is practically nonexistent in dictatorial regimes. It has been a remarkable step taken by Dr. Bindeshwar Pathak to organize this National Conference where various aspects of sociology like sanitation, public health, gender equality, social discrimination will be explored in the coming discussions.

 

Basic Needs

sos-7Hon’ble Mr. Bharatsinh Madhavsinh Solanki, Minister of State (independent charge), Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation, speaking on the occasion named sanitation and drinking water as the basic needs of society. We have to gear up and streamline our efforts at the national scale to make provision for their availability for all, we will seek the active participation and cooperation of all, specially the nongovernmental organisations in these endeavours, he added. Hon’ble Mr. Jairam Ramesh, Union Minister for Rural Development started his address with drawing attention of the audience to the sanitational situation in the country with provision for sanitary toilets still to be made on a large scale, specially in the villages, where even now, about 25 lakh scavengers are engaged in cleaning toilets. The government has taken a pioneering step by constituting Mahila Swayam Sahayata Samooh. The effort is to provide what has been termed as Aajeevika to sponsor self-help activities arranging bank loans for the purpose. 25,000 such Samoohs have been constituted targeting to reach 75,000 in a year. The Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation has initiated Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan. So far 2,500 Panchayats have become Nirmal, whereas their total number is 2.5 lakh. It has been planned to reach all of them in ten years’ time. There is a bill before Parliament to make prohibitory provisions against manual scavenging stricter, since the existing Act preventing the practice has not been effective. The Minister said, “I shall request the Hon’ble Speaker to use her good offices to get the proposed bill through to be enacted soon. Only one state so far has been able to totally prevent defecation in the open, that is Sikkim. Kerala is expected to be the second such state, to be followed, hopefully by Maharashtra. Efforts are to be concentrated on states like Bihar, U.P., Madhya Pradesh, which are big states to be taken care of. The issue of sanitation is too important and big to be left as a governmental mission. NGOs are to be associated on a large scale in the drive for cleanliness; Sulabh’s work in the field has been really pioneering”.

sos-8Hon’ble Speaker Mrs. Meira Kumar, addressing the audience recalled her long association with Sulabh where she is always remembered. She said, “The organization has been doing great work in the field of sanitation and social reform. The sewerage system was introduced in Calcutta in 1870. Out of 7,933 towns only 160 have sewerage treatment plants. The problem of the ‘Untouchables’ in our society is an old one. We do not have slavery as America had; slaves were liberated at some point of time or the other, not so with our ‘Untouchables’. The problem is mainly our mental attitude, our minds are dirty. We are so much concerned about cleanliness that touching a scavenger or even his shadow will pollute us. I went to Japan. Houses as well as streets are quite clean there. There are no scavengers there. Housewives clean their houses and the portion outside in front of their house. We get to the Dalits at the time of elections; when we tell them they are vital components of our society. Their votes make or mar a candidate. Our Sansad has their significant contribution. But seeing their general condition in our society, I thought it will not change, at least not during my life time. But it has now started changing, thanks to Sulabh”.

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Pandit Devendra Kumar Sharma, head priest of the Jagannath temple, Alwar, was awarded a cheque of Rs. 5 lakh on behalf of Sulabh by Hon’ble Mr. Jairam Ramesh, Union Minister. He also administered oath to the Pandits of Varanasi, led by Dr. B.N. Chaturvedi not to discriminate against anyone on the basis of untouchability and caste and readily worship deities in temples with the ‘Untouchables’ as well as share meals at functions with them.

 

sos-10Mr. S.P. Singh, Chairman, Sulabh International Social Service Organisation, proposed vote of thanks. The inaugural session concluded with singing of the National Anthem by one and all present there.

Technical Sessions

sos-11After lunch the First Technical Session on Sociology of Sanitation was held under the Chairmanship of Prof. Hetukar Jha (Retired), Department of Sociology, Patna University. It may be pointed out that the scholarly papers and articles received for the National Conference were compiled and published in book-form in two volumes. They were released by the Hon’ble Speaker and the Hon’ble Ministers. During the First Technical Session the learned sociologists included Mr. Manish Thakur, Dr. S.K. Mishra and Ms. Prabhleen Kaur, Dr. Mohammad Akram, Dr. Sadan Jha and Prof. Shakuntala C. Shettar.

Mr. Manish Thakur from the Indian Institute of Management, Kolkata, pleaded for a historical mapping of the twin notions of civil consciousness and public space. Historians of colonial India indicated the cultural incompatibility of the colonial and native notions of public health and hygiene. In parts of Andhra Pradesh, toilets were used for storing grains. Construction workers may erect huge buildings but hardly they have any toilet facilities. Very few households allow domestic workers to avail of toilet facilities.

Dr. S.K. Mishra and Mrs. Prabhleen Kaur delineated the issues related to sanitation from the perspective of development. A vital component of a developed society is the health of its citizens. Overall coverage in rural India is a dismal 34.8%; for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes it is 23.7% and 25% respectively. Sanitational situation was not so bad during the Harappan period where model of urban sanitation was discovered. It is also to be noted that there are no water and sanitation Regulator and there are no sector laws, either. Percentage of open defecation in rural areas is 69%, the highest in South Asia.

Dr. Mohammad Akram, Associate Professor of Sociology, AMU, Aligarh, held that poor sanitation is something that not only affects the health of the people, but also the economic and social development of the nation. It is the joint responsibility of individual, community and state. A study conducted by a unit of WHO estimated that India loses Rs. 240 billion annually due to lack of proper sanitation. Fifty-five per cent of our population has no access to toilets and sanitation in India is yet to become an integral part of development paradigm, although the sanitation coverage has increased significantly from 21% in 2001 to more than 65%.

Prof. Shakuntala C. Shettar, Department of Sociology, Karnataka University, Dharwad held that sociology of sanitation is already a sub-branch of medical sociology that emerged in the USA during 1940’s. The relations between the two are extremely intimate. The gender issues in sanitation relate to the women who are responsible for water and hygiene of family, specially of children. Securing good sanitation facilities has direct bearing not only on women’s health but also on their access to education and employment.

Prof. Sadan Jha was of the view that the discourse on sanitation has primarily been west centric. In the non-west differentiation along caste and gender lines shape the cosmology of sanitation and hygiene. Mahatma Gandhi, on the other hand included in his swaraj both swa as well as the collective.

sos-12The Second Technical Session on ‘Environmental Sanitation’ was held under the Chairmanship of Mr. Pankaj Jain, IAS, Secretary, Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation. Dr. R. Shankar, Co-Chairman and Professor of Sociology, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirapalli, held that in research methodology qualitative research involves an indepth understanding of human behaviour. The measures often used in the study of healthcare are quality-adjusted life years and the related disability-adjusted life years. Health is closely related to nutrition as well as spread of education. Many factors make up the balance of nature. Human body, after all, is nature’s creation. All lives depend on water, air and minerals.

Dr. V. Chandrasekhar and Dr. Karuppiah, Department of Sociology, University of Madras, Chennai, described unregulated industrialization and urbanization disaster. In India, 47 children out of 1,000 die after birth, 80% die of diseases caused by water, sanitation and environmental pollution. Population explosion places higher demands on natural resources. Development planning in India gives high priority to economic criteria and fails to incorporate the environmentalist’s concern; soft cultural and hard cultural factors are to be cautiously modulated for any significant change.

Dr. Sharmila Chhotaray, Assistant Professor of Sociology, Tripura University, indicated lack of adequate knowledge and scarcity of water as primary reasons for insanitary conditions in tribal populated villages of West Tripura District. Dr. Hema Gandotra, Department of Sociology, University of Jammu, estimated that only 31% of India’s population is using improved sanitation facilities as of 2008. The Ganga river in India has a stunning 1.1 million litres of raw sewage being disposed into it every minute, when a community gets displaced as in the state of J&K, there is discussion usually on their socioeconomic conditions and hardly any on the issue of sanitation and water or environment.

Dr. Saroj Ranjan Mania, Research and Analysis Consultant, Bhubaneswar, revealed that there is great disparity amongst various states. 10% rural households in Madhya Pradesh use toilet as compared to over 80% in Kerala or 60% in Assam. In Odisha, one-fourth of the total population belongs to ST category. Due to poverty they lack sanitation awareness. Defecation in the open is a common practice.

Dr. Anil Vaghela from Samaldas Arts College, Sociology Department, M.K. Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar, Gujarat, laid out a detailed syllabus of Sociology of Sanitation, suggesting five units as follows: 1. Introduction of the Subject, 2. Research method like survey, questionnaire and interview, 3. Theory and approach – community theory, personal theory and government approach, 4. Relation with other sectors, 5. Relation with and Differences with other social sciences like Psychology, History, Philosophy.

Mr. Paras Nath Chaudhary, (formerly associated with the University of Heidelberg), held that India has yet to imbibe the idea of general hygiene. While we may exhibit, some people say, high standards of personal hygiene, we are only a little cautious for public cleanliness.

Mr. Ram Updesh Singh, IAS (Retired), quoted V.S. Naipaul from his book ‘An Area of Darkness’ referring to the scene of Indian men and women defecating in the open. Social mobilization is an essential pre-requisite for sanitational development. Sulabh initiative in the matter has really been laudable.

Prof. V.P. Singh, Head, Centre for Globalisation and Development Industries, University of Allahabad, and Mr. Ashish Saxena, Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Allahabad, cautioned against global warming and degradation of environment, pollution of rivers like Ganga, the negligence adopted towards the cleaners, specially at massive locations like the age old Kumbha Mela, who are the lowest paid while they work round the clock. The Day 1 concluded with a lively and realistic drama played in the evening – ‘Dreams of Mahatma Gandhi – from Serfdom to Freedom’ depicting the erstwhile lamentable plight of scavengers and their redemption through the efforts of Sulabh International educating and training them and their children.

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Second Day of the Conference

sos-14Started with a visit by the esteemed participants to the Sulabh Campus in the morning. They went round the Sulabh International Museum of Toilets, different models of Sulabh two-pit pour-flush toilet displayed at the Campus as well as the biogas gas plant and the effluent treatment system. The gas generated is used to light mantle lamp and cooking food in the kitchen. They saw flask full of effluent treated through Sulabh technology rendering it odourless and pathogen-free. They were also shown dry lumps of human excreta which after a period of two years turned into hard balls free of odour and pathogens.

sos-15The Day 2 of the National Conference had two Technical Sessions. The third session on Public Health was held under the Chairmanship of Prof. Ishwar Modi, President, Indian Sociological Society. Dr. Amarendra Mahapatra, Assistant Director, Regional Medical Research Centre, Bhubaneswar, held sanitation to have always been a part and parcel of the society for ages. He also made surprising revelations that 32% of the population in rural and tribal areas do not use the tubewell water for drinking purpose and that in rural areas, the use of latrine was not satisfactory because of the habit of going out for defecation or foul smell or water problem for flushing, building political commitment, advocacy, lobbying and folk media are necessary for this cause.

Prof. Pramod Kumar Sharma, Head of Sociology, Department, Pandit Ravi Shankar University, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, named provision of environmentally safe sanitation to millions of people as a significant challenge. Urban growth in India is faster than rural one. Proportion of population residing in urban areas has increased from 27.8% in 2001 to 31.80% in 2011. Successful pro-poor sanitation programmes must be scaled up, investments must be customized and targeted to those most in need. There ought to be an enforcement mechanism for stopping defecation in public.

Mr. Kamal Nath Jha (‘Save the Children’) indicated the provision of functional toilets in only 20% of schools according to a recent survey. These are to be prioritized in any sanitation programme.

Prof. Madhu Nagla, Department of Sociology, M.D. University, Rohtak considered ideas about dirt and hygiene to vary from culture to culture and from century to century. Simply providing public services in the field of sanitation does not in itself guarantee improvement in health status.

MDG Target

Prof. Shaukath Azim from Karnataka University, Dharwad, held the poor and marginalized groups to be the worst sufferers in respect of health and hygiene. According to WHO and UNICEF’s Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation, 17 states such as Kerala, Haryana, Meghalaya, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab and most Union Territories have reached the MDG target; Assam and Andhra Pradesh will achieve it in next 10 years; Karnataka and Maharashtra in the next 25 years and Madhya Pradesh and Odisha only in the next century. Scavengers are being used in Karnataka to clean human excreta. In case of BPL families, most of the sanctioned toilets were found only on official records.

Dr. Richard Pais, Professor of Sociology (Retired), Mangalore, Karnataka University, talked of India’s fast urbanized growth. Referring to Mangalore, he said around 1940s, wet latrines became common. The scavengers were absorbed in the Corporation. The Corporation employed around 400 people to clean streets.sos-16

The Fourth Session on Day 2 was held on Social Deprivation under the Chairmanship of Prof. M.N. Karna, Emeritus Professor of Sociology, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong. According to the Co-Chairman of the session, Dr. Jitendra Prasad, Professor and Head of Department of Sociology, M.D. University, Rohtak, Haryana, it is paradoxical that people who provided a particular service to the society were labelled as ‘Untouchables’. It is a pleasant surprise to learn that the great freedom fighter, Shaheed Bhagat Singh had said, if religion means blind faith by mixing rituals and philosophy then it should be blown away. About 7-8 thousand Mehtars work to keep Mahakumbh Mela clean. The law passed in 1993 outlawing the practice of manual scavenging has not been effective. This aspect was also stressed by Dr. Akhilesh Ranjan stating that, the community involved in maintaining hygiene holds lower position in society.

Dr. Radheshyam Tripathi, Professor of Sociology, Tilak College, Katni, Madhya Pradesh, saw light on the horizon with people of the deprived classes coming up in greater numbers in services, their children joining schools and colleges. This is leading to elimination of labour market exclusion, service exclusion and exclusion from social relations.

Dr. Vishav Raksha, Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Jammu highlighted the social deprivation scavengers faced with low rate of literacy among SC and ST females at 41.9% and 47.8% respectively. These are hereditary negativities. There is, however, a redeeming factor in recent political awakening that has taken place.

The Fifth Session was head, on the way forward and road map ahead. The Valedictory Session was held under the Chairmanship of Dr. Bindeshwar Pathak. Mr. Pankaj Jain, Secretary, Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation addressing the valedictory session said the Sulabh technology relating to the disposal of excreta had been found satisfactory even by scientists who had examined it. The only caution they advised was the construction of Sulabh toilets away from water bodies underground to safeguard against any bacterial pollution. The remarkable thing about Sulabh technology toilets was that they did not cause any environmental pollution. Considering the fact that 600 million people in the country go for open defecation, they have to be provided with proper sanitation facilities and Sulabh and such other NGOs have a great role to play.

Mr. Jain said a part of the sanitation problem in India was due to the reluctance of people to pay for the use of toilets. Generally, people would go for defecation in the open and would not like to pay for use of toilets for this purpose. In view of this, the government had made it mandatory for filling stations in the country to have provision of toilets for the convenience of people travelling long distance in their cars. Sulabh has succeeded in motivating people to pay for the use of its toilets. “How could the government motivate people to pay for such facilities is a question still defying us”. Mr. Jain commended and praised Sulabh, again, for its success in this regard.

Dr. Pathak summarizing the discussions said that an India Declaration has been prepared and agreed upon with specific recommendations to prioritise the issue of sanitation in the broad discipline of sociology. Dr. Pathak expressed his gratitude and thankfulness for the great success of the National Conference by virtue of active participation of eminent dignitaries like the Hon’ble Speaker, Lok Sabha, Hon’ble Ministers of Government of India and eminent scholars of sociology.