International Academy of Environmental Sanitation and Public Health (IAESPH) is a not-for-
profit non-governmental organization and has been serving for the promotion of global
environmental sanitation in the public interest.

The Academy, formerly known as “Sulabh International Academy of Environmental Sanitation and Public Health” (SIAESPH) with the same functioning and objectives, was renamed in
2004 from “Sulabh International Institute of Technical Research and Training (SIITRAT), established in 1984 for promoting Research, Development and Consultancy services in the Sanitation Sector, which was registered in 1993 under Societies Registration Act XXI of 1860 with permanent registration under Foreign Contribution
Regulation Act (FCRA).

 

The Academy’s main thrust is to contribute for sustainable sanitation solutions through capacity building, skill upgradation, knowledge sharing, technology transfer and social transformation to enhance the quality of life of billions of under-privileged population in the developing world.

With a view to strengthen these areas of operation, the Academy undertakes design, construction, operation and maintenance of sanitation services, monitoring and evaluation of sanitation projects and a continuing research and development in the sector.

The Academy has a well planned institutional framework demonstrating the technological solutions coupled with well equipped scientific laboratory for research and development. The Academy is possessed with rich knowledge pool and multi-disciplinary professionalism including sanitation experts, health professionals, social scientists, engineers, architects, administrators, ecologists and world-wide networking of scholars and eminent professionals with proven abilities from related areas.

The Academy is dedicated to promote PEACE in the developing world by enriching:

Poverty Alleviation;

Environmental Sanitation;

Awareness and motivation;

Children as Agent of Change; and

Education for all in environmental sanitation, as ‘safe water and basic
sanitation’ is the foundation of life and health and personal hygiene is the key to happy living.

Aims and Objectives

The Academy is aimed at shouldering a much larger mandate of performing as an international centre of holistic learning and education on all issues relating to environmental sanitation and public health. The aim is to treat environmental sanitation and public health as a major field of education and disseminate knowledge and skills to all walks of life at national, regional and global levels, predominantly through capacity building and training, knowledge management and technology transfer, consultancy services, research and development, project management, action sociology and gender mainstreaming.

The specific objectives mainly include:

  • Capacity building and training for both national and international professionals;
  • Curriculum development, documentation, networking, etc;
  • Applied and fundamental research and action sociology in environmental sanitation;
  • Formulation, monitoring and implementation of projects relating to Environmental Sanitation with focus on water, sanitation, health and hygiene;
  • Consultancy services on issues relating to social, environmental and technological development in the area of environmental sanitation and public health;
  • Contributing to achieving localized millennium development goals for sanitation among developing countries through knowledge sharing and technology transfer.

Activities

In concurrence with the objectives set, the Academy’s activities mainly include:

  • Preparation of professionals of national, regional, local and international repute on the issues of water, sanitation, health and hygiene;
  • Globalization of the appropriate, affordable, eco-friendly and culturally acceptable sanitation technologies to widen the sanitation coverage, particularly to SAARC and other developing countries;
  • Research and development in water, sanitation, health and hygiene sector;
  • Social reforms and mobilization;
  • WASH Campaign involving schools as ‘Agents of Change’ for sanitation and hygiene;
  • Rehabilitation of women and children of weaker sections through education and vocational training;
  • Alternative sources of livelihood for liberating scavengers through skill upgradation and up-scaling their capacities for sustainable development;
  • Awareness generation and creation of demand for safe access to water and sanitation through community participation and participatory democracy.

Core Competence

The Academy envisions as a centre of holistic learning and education in Environmental Sanitation with its core competence broadly categorized to:

  • Capacity building and Knowledge management;
  • Research and Development
  • Project formulation and implementation;
  • Consultancy services;
  • Water resources management;
  • Waste management;
  • Environmental Protection;
  • Health and Hygiene;
  • Action Sociology;
  • Rural Sanitation; and
  • Gender Mainstreaming

Operational Diversification

The Academy’s core competence is well diversified and mainly emphasized on on-site application of innovative sanitation solutions in the areas of:

  • toilet related sanitation and its application for the utilization of the society at individual household as well as at community levels with unique advantage of on-site disposal of human excreta.
  • promotion of towns/cities and villages free from open-defecation;
  • water quality and surveillance;
  • water conservation through rain water harvesting and wastewater management by recycling and reuse through treatment;
  • solid waste management including composting;
  • developing scavenger free towns by alleviating the scavenging community from the menace of manual cleaning of toilets and transform them at par with main-stream of the society;
  • encouraging school sanitation and creating School Sanitation Clubs as the children, the future citizens of society, are the agents of change for promoting safe sanitation movement.

Decentralized Networking

The Academy believes in decentralization of its activities for effective performance. Its professional networking is spread over throughout the country in association with Sulabh International Social Service Organization, a pioneering NGO in Environmental Sanitation as well as with international organizations like UN-HABITAT,
UNICEF, UNDP, WHO, etc. The Academy has also established its Regional Training Centres at Patna and
Kolkata. More centres are on the way. The Regional Centre in Patna, Bihar, established in August 2006 with the
facilities of a sanitation park, training centre, hostel accommodation, has been catering to the needs of training of all the stakeholders of Bihar. The Centre has gained the reputation of being one of the most effective and efficient training organizations in the State of Bihar. The Regional Centre at Kolkata carries out Research and
Development and academic activities under the overall guidance of Prof. K.J. Nath, Vice Chancellor of the
Academy. The centre had undertaken and completed various research studies sponsored by World Health
Organization (WHO), India including ‘Disease burden due to inadequate water and sanitation facilities in India’,
‘Perceptions and practices of sanitation and hygiene in five Indian States of Eastern India, namely, West Bengal,
Bihar, Orissa, Jharkhand and Assam and the impact of the same on community health’, ‘Development of
guidelines for water safety plan for different water supply systems used in rural India’, etc. Apart from these
studies, the Centre provides collaborative support to the Institution of Public Health Engineers for organizing
national seminars and workshops on issues related to urban health, sanitation, disaster management, public
health engineering materials and equipments, etc. The Centre has helped the Academy in developing an
Encyclopedia on Sanitation. The Centre also collaborates with International Scientific Forum on Home Hygiene
(IFH) for promotion of Hygiene Behaviour issues internationally and supports WASH India and WSSCC in their
activities.

Scenario of Achievements

Efforts towards Toilet Related Sanitation

The Academy promotes Twin-pit Pour Flush Compost Toilet for household use, Public toilets on ‘pay and use’ for community use and bio-energy systems by generation of biogas from biogas plants linked to public toilets as well as utilising animal wastes like cowdung. The biogas emanating from the bio-digester linked to the public toilets is being utilized as cooking gas, for electricity generation, street lighting, body warming purposes. The Academy also propagates the Effluent Treatment technology by which the effluent from the human excreta based biogas plant becomes colourless, odourless and pathogen free water which can be used safely
for aquaculture, agriculture purposes or for discharge into any water body.The Government of India and the International Agencies including UN-HABITAT, WHO, UNICEF, etc have recognized these efforts. The Academy
promotes these proven technologies through capacity building and skill upgradation to all the related functionaries, not only from India but also from the countries of the developing world. The Academy also provides
technical assistance as well as project-based consultancy services for design, construction, operation and maintenance of these Technologies with its endeavour to contribute for sustainable sanitation.

Awareness creation and promotion of open-defecation free habitats

The Academy ensures up-scaling the mind-set of the community towards quality living in a pollution free enviroment, while extending sanitation services. The Academy’s recent project of bringing awareness and constructing individual household toilets to all habitants of Hirmitla village in Mewat District, Haryana is a unique illustration of such performance. The villagers are predominantly poor and the vulnerable. The alleviation of these habitants from the age-old practice of open defecation which has been the cause of health hazards and environmental pollution is a unique demonstration of the concerted efforts of the Academy. This is coupled with
the financial assistance from the Rail Tel Corporation of India Ltd., under the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The project is a land mark to all the professionals engaged in the promotion of sanitation for improving the quality of life through sanitary services in the third world societies.

The Academy ensures up-scaling the mind-set of the community towards quality living in a
pollution free enviroment, while extending sanitation services. The Academy’s recent project of bringing awareness and constructing individual household toilets to all habitants of Hirmitla village in Mewat District, Haryana is a unique illustration of such performance. The villagers are predominantly poor and the vulnerable. The alleviation of these habitants from the age-old practice of open defecation which has been the cause of health hazards
and environmental pollution is a unique demonstration of the concerted efforts of the Academy. This is coupled
with the financial assistance from the Rail Tel Corporation of India Ltd., under the Corporate Social esponsibility (CSR). The project is a land mark to all the professionals engaged in the promotion of sanitation for improving the quality of life through sanitary services in the third world societies.

The Academy considers significant to facilitate in promoting sensitized citizenry with awareness, motivation and participation towards sanitation, intensive and responsive involvement of all stakeholders with a more effective role of civic bodies and private sector, proactive mindset towards sanitation, hygiene and environmental protection, public-private-people partnership, creating awareness through school children and teachers as Agents of Change and improved health, hygiene and sanitation in the society.

Gender Mainstreaming

The Academy gives equal weightage to Gender Mainstreaming. The Academy supports all activities that strengthen women empowerment with dignity. The Scavengers, who traditionally clean and carry away human waste to eke out their existence has enabled one of the India’s most oppressed communities reduced to the depth of degradation as ‘untouchables’ and have no human rights, dignity and social status. Among these, the women are the worst sufferers. An innovative approach called Nai Disha (meaning New Direction) has been initiated to change the course of life of the manual scavengers, particularly the women, by liberating from scavenging and rehabilitating them to bring into the main stream of the society through education and gainful employment. Scavenger rehabilitation programme is one of the Academy’s prime Agenda. Supporting training programmes, vocational education for achieving self employment are one of the main considerations in the Academy’s capacity building and training effort.

Alleviating scavenging free societies through social transformation

Another significant social fall out of the Academy’s dedicated pursuit is the rehabilitation of the scavenging communities (those engaged in manual cleaning of human excreta) to the main stream of the society through education, developing market oriented vocational skills and there by ensuring their dignity and relieving them from social discrimination. As a result, the towns of Alwar and Tonk have become scavenger free towns. Many more towns are on the way.

The scavengers of Alwar Rajasthan, India, who used to clean nightsoil earlier, are now, after education and training have become self-employed and have a life of dignity. Food products prepared by them
are now purchased by the local people who were unthinkable earlier since taboo was attached to even their touch and because they were considered ‘untouchables’. This symbolises a fundamental change in attitude nursed for centuries by the people. The scavengers weaned away from the demeaning practice of manual cleaning of human excreta and brought on a par with others is realization of a dream of Mahatma Gandhi

Water conservation and waste water management

The Academy considers Rain Water Harvesting as an essential attribute for water conservation as well as recharging ground-water potential. The Academy has prepared detailed project reports for rain water harvesting to six five star hotels of Taj Group (Agra, Jaipur, Chennai and two hotels at Goa) as well as for Scindia School, Gwalior, DIN Cooperative Group Housing Society, Dwarka, New Delhi and Ramkrishna Mission Sewashram, Lucknow, implemented in collaboration with International Rainwater Harvesting Alliance (IRHA), Switzerland. The stakeholders of the concerned projects were imparted the necessary training for its design and execution. The treated effluent from the bio-digester also contributes to recycle and re-use of treated waste water. In addition, the Academy also propagates the Duckweed Technology for waste water treatment and also promoting pisciculture for economic gains.

The Academy has made a significant dent in Clean Yamuna Munch Project under Yamuna Action Plan II sponsored by Government of India and JBIC, Japan at different locations including Agra, Gurgaon, Faridabad, Yamuna Nagar and NOIDA with its main objectives of enhancing public awareness and participation; developing greater understanding and popularity for all YAP sewerage and non-sewerage components;
promoting higher visibility, positive image and support among policy makers and the general public; promoting behavioural change towards adoption of environment-friendly practices among the public; creating a network of stakeholders which shall gradually take over activities of Clean Yamuna Manch beyond the project period; and sensitizing the Civic Bodies about YAP.

The Academy assisted environmental improvement project at Kanpur and Mirzapur towns under the Ganga Action Plan in collaboration with the Netherlands based consulting firm (Haskoning and Euroconsult) in preparing project reports on low-cost sanitation with an objective to prevent pollution of river Ganga. The Academy was actively involved in the National River Conservation Project of Government of India and is
assisting the State Governments and local bodies in prevention of pollution of other rivers in the country.

Solid waste management

Solid waste management constitutes a serious problem, particularly in the mega cities. It is observed that garbage disposal, waste recycling and urban poverty are closely linked. In most of the cities, the system of waste collection is visible at municipal dumping sites. The waste pickers have an intrinsic role in the handling of the cities’ garbage and play an important role in the existing solid waste management in most of the cities. There are five major steps involved in the management of garbage viz. collection, segregation, transportation, treatment and disposal. The Academy emphasizes the solid waste management mechanisms including vermin composting in all its projects and consultancy services, wherever appropriate, as an instrument of improving environmental practices, emplyment generation, energy promotion and adopts in an integrated manner.

The Academy has completed a Government of India project sponsored by UNDP on “National Strategy for Urban Poor on Solid Waste Disposal through Vermi-composting and improvement of Environment by strengthening Community-based Organisations (CBOs)”.

The project was aimed at improvement of environmental practices for the management of solid waste; demonstrating the community that recycling is a viable source for employment generation; gender sensitization; setting up of an institution at the community level to sustain the system; reorganization and re-use of open spaces to improve the micro climate and ensuring accessibility of the people (improvement of water bodies,
plantation soil improvement etc.).

The Target Group was 2000 households in the Madipur Rehabilitated Colony, New Delhi. The activities undertaken were mainly awareness generation, cleanliness drive, school sanitation and cleanliness of school premises, demonstration of rain harvesting, vermin-composting, Training and gender sensitization, greening, and improvement of local organizations through workshops and meetings and discussions.

School Sanitation

The Academy emphasized promotion of School Sanitation as students serve as media for spreading the message of sanitation in each home and influence their parents to build toilets. Since teachers command respect of the community, they prove very helpful in motivating the people to have toilets in their houses. In the promotion of school sanitation, the Academy has been encouraging establishment of ‘School Sanitation Club’ with a goal to mould the total personality of the individual student in relation to community and thereby to the ecosystem as a whole. The focus is towards the child as the ‘key human resource’ and the schools as ‘Knowledge Centres’.

Research and Development

The Academy’s applied research on various issues relating to social, environmental and technical developments has resulted in carrying out several important studies on social issues of scavengers’ rehabilitation, their skill development and brought out significant research on sustainable technologies like biogas plants, duckweed ponds, materials and designs of pan and trap of toilet, waste water disposal and treatment, solid waste management, bio-medical waste management etc. The outcome of these research studies and designing
capabilities are tested and validated on ground realities and propagated for the community use through capacity
building and training. The Academy aims at bringing sanitation into a sharp focus of academic activities and research at national, regional and global levels by revitalizing through capacity building, training, professional studies and counseling.

Capacity Building and Training

The Academy has well established infrastructure to provide capacity building and training and on-site demonstration of sanitation technologies and related areas in respect of household toilets of different designs and varying costs, toilet complex for community use and linked to biogas plant and effluent treatment, composting technology, waste water treatment through duckweed technology, etc. The Academy performs regular on-site training/demonstration of these technologies to people from all walks of life for transfer of knowledge and technologies.

The experience gained over the years has inspired the Academy to create trained manpower and professionals to handle the sector in a more effective manner in the 21st Century. The Academy has taken up this initiative to prepare the national and international professionals, planners, elected representative, functionaries of the central/state/local governments, private sector, NGOs, CBOs, educational institutions
including universities, colleges and schools and all those engaged in the implementation of the sanitation programmes in the States and Union Territories by augmenting their capacities through workshops, training
programmes, which enable them to widen the sanitation coverage. The Academy offers demand-driven programmes based on ‘Training Needs Assessment’ (TNA) for specific target groups in specific areas.

The Academy has developed appropriate curriculums and modules for capacity building and training on the various themes including project planning, implementation and monitoring of on-site sanitation for household use and community use, bio-energy systems, waste water treatment, solid waste management system, rain-water harvesting, health, hygiene, school sanitation, environmental protection and community participation. The
Academy works closely with various stakeholders and use knowledge sharing and technology transfer instruments in innovative ways to reach larger audiences in the sector. This process in a continuous manner upscale sanitation performance. The modules developed by the Academy for capacity development fits-in perfectly in a holistic way to widen the water and sanitation coverage not only in India but also abroad with suitable modification.

The Academy, mostly, organizes Training of Trainers (TOT) programmes so that these trained professionals further impart training locally for promotion of sanitation services. Such illustrations include the Academy’s capacity building programme on ‘Sanitation Technologies’ to 14 African countries in collaboration with UNHABITAT, who after completion have been implementing in their respective countries; and skill development programmes organized in Bangladesh, Ethiopia,etc. Similar is the situation at national level.

Internship Programs

The Academy provides internship programmes to national and international university students in water, sanitation, and health and hygiene sector, as an integral part of their curriculum towards practical dimension. The students are oriented on sanitation technologies, bio energy and waste water treatment systems developed by Academy as well as its other initiatives including women empowerment through interactive sessions, on-site demonstration and technical visits to different cities/towns in India. A number of students from academics not only from Indian universities, colleges and wards of various Embassies, etc, but also from the African and Asian countries including Zambia, Nigeria, Cameroon, Ghana, Uganda, South Africa, Cambodia, Nepal, Japan, etc have been benefitted from these programmes.

Contact Programmes for Developed Countries

The developed countries like France, USA, Japan, Australia, Singapore, etc do derive benefits from the efforts of the Academy in sanitation. It provides two to three months placement programmes in the water, sanitation, health and hygiene sector.

Human Resource Development

The Academy has taken up various initiatives for the human resource development (HRD). Regular training courses organized for the hospital nurses, doctors and technical officers of Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, officers and trainees from Human Settlement Management Institute (HSMI) of HUDCO, NGOs, and many other departments of the Central, State and Local Governments.

Training for Grass-root functionaries

The Academy organizes skill development programmes to grass-root level functionaries on ‘Sanitation and Housekeeping’ periodically to upgrade their skills in respect of clean environment, maintenance, etc. The objective is to build a cadre of professionalism among the functionaries with appropriate skills and techniques in sanitation, health and hygiene and in housekeeping services for efficient functioning in their respective trades. One such successful recent event has been the training to the Tradesman of Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB), a para-military force organization of Government of India on “Sanitation and Housekeeping”.

The Academy considers Masons and skilled workers as an important tool for creation of
demand and construction activities through social marketing and organises practical training and workshops for these functionaries for construction of toilets, particularly at the household level. The workshops organised by the Academy in Bangladesh, Ethiopia and in the State of Bihar, India include Masons’ skill upgradation as a part of the agenda.

The capacity building efforts through training and internship programmes had a significant dent in knowledge sharing and technology transfer to a number of professionals from national and international agencies including Uganda, Ghana, Cameroon, Nigeria, Mexico and Zambia .

Collaboration with UN-HABITAT

UN-HABITAT, Nairobi recognized the Academy for the capacity development on environmental sanitation to the professionals from the developing countries.

Fourteen African countries including Ethiopia, Mozambique, Uganda, Cameroon, Burkina
Faso, Kenya, Tanzania, Cote d’ Ivorie, Mali, Ghana, Rwanda, Senegal, Nigeria and Zambia have been benefited through capacity building on ‘Sanitation Technologies’ in collaboration with UN-HABITAT, as a part of the implementation of the Habitat Agenda in achieving the millennium Development Goals (MDG) set for sustainable development in water, sanitation, health and hygiene sector and also a part of the world-wide global initiative to promote clean living and good health.

This capacity building programme provided opportunity to the participant countries to
exchange ideas on sanitation and discuss sanitation technologies and try them out in their own countries with changes wherever necessary. This Programme has been a step towards strengthening and promoting South-South Cooperation for sharing experiences and exchanging ideas on appropriate technologies. The Ambassador of Ethiopia and Kenya in India expressed their thoughts about the said capacity building programme as a need for
technological exchange for the common good of the peoples of India and Africa and urged to get these new techniques to improve sanitation facilities in the respective countries.

South Asian Countries

Several South-Asian countries including Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Cambodia, Bangladesh and Afghanistan are also implementing/being implemented to address the respective country’s sanitation issues. The Academy has initiated health and hygiene awareness programme in concomitant with toilet construction at the five
sites of construction at Kabul under Government of India’s relief and rehabilitation package for the war-torn nation of Afghanistan, which included one hospital and four market places with adjoining slums. The
municipal officials and engineers working in the Sanitation sector were trained and their capacities were enhanced so as to understand the various issues of saniatation. The rehabilitation package also includes a
base line survey on water, sanitation and hygiene, awareness campaign for promotion of better hygiene practices covering schools, colleges and other educational institutions, advocacy for safe drinking water, appropriate
sanitation and usage of the community toilets constructed under the programme.

In support from WHO

The Academy has not only been working closely with UN-HABITAT, but also has made significant contribution to bridge the sanitation gap with WHO, UNICEF, etc through projects and studies. Some of the significant ones with the support of WHO include the Delhi Healthy Urban Project
(DHUP), a pilot initiative of implementing WHO’s Healthy City Programme in Delhi”; “Preparedness of Rural Health Centres on Water, Environmental Sanitation and Infrastructure Management Services in the Disaster-prone
areas of India”; FACT SHEETS on Water and Environmental Sanitation in Urban India for WHO Water Day.

The DHUP pilot project has contributed in providing a new paradigm shift in the
overall Governance Process for promoting a sustainable city development. The pilot project has enabled to establish a proven change with WHO’s public health initiative of “Healthy Cities Programme (HCP)’ wherein the focus of governance is centred towards ‘Health’, as such becomes an integral component of the city
planning by involving innovative strategies for settlement management and development with equitable economy, environment and social values for the sustainable development of a healthy city. Similarly, the WHO PHC Study Project contributed to promote an effective, efficient and sustainable Health Care Delivery System not only in the study areas, but also establish a proven change in the functioning process of the Rural Health Centre. These projects influenced as a role model for replication in similar habitats.

In association with UNICEF

The Academy through its Regional Centre in Patna and in association with the UNICEF and Government of Bihar provided capacity building and training particularly for the grass-root level workers to support the scalingup of the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) and the Swajaldhara programme, a Government launched reform in the water supply and sanitation sector to lay emphasis on awareness generation for creating demand in rural areas. The Lal Ganj and Hazipur Blocks of Vaishali District, Buhar was chosen for demand generation of sanitation and safe handling of drinking water among the rural population in these Blocks. The Block Coordinators, Panchayat Coordinators were trained along with assured delivery of sanitary materials to the rural people with appropriate technology in order to provide safe sanitation in the least possible time. Masons were also trained for creation of demand and construction activities. This project is a shining example of strong partnership amongst NGOs, Government bodies and International Agencies focusing towards unified goals.

At the initiative of UNICEF, Uganda, efforts are on the way for the Academy to promote appropriate sanitation with biogas facilities initially to begin with in Kampala and in Karamoja.

For Republic of Mozambique

The Academy developed “Social and Technical guidelines on Health, Hygiene and Sanitation Education” for the Republic of Mozambique, which was aimed at implementing their Rural Sanitation Programme including health and hygiene and provides sanitary technological options to the beneficiaries to choose as per their needs, choice and financial capacity. The main purpose was to improve the health of the rural population by introducing good hygiene and sanitation practices within households and giving them access to protected water supply and adequate sanitation. The guidelines dealt in detail the social and technical issues of Rural Sanitation and appropriately set its objectives for enhancing the awareness levels, promoting behavioral change, creating a
network of stakeholders and sensitizing the civic bodies in achieving the Goal and designed for the use of the implementing agencies and also for assisting the local authorities in the rural sanitation development with
appropriate training programmes covering social, technical and administrative issues.

Royal Government of Netherlands

At the request of the HUDCO, the Academy carried out evaluation study of low cost sanitation programme in 4 towns namely Balghat, Dewas, Durg and Sarni of Madhya Pradesh. The Human Settlement Management Institute (HSMI) of HUDCO in collaboration with the Institute of Housing and Urban Development Studies (IHS), Rotterdam took up a Government of Netherlands assisted collaborative project on “Capacity Building for the Urban Environment: A Comparative Research, Training and Experience Exchange”. Experiences obtained through the research study on the operational strategies of best practices for urban environmental management were
presented in Habitat II – the Second U.N. Conference held at Istanbul in June 1996.

Waste consultants of Netherlands desired to prepare a document on methods of household human excreta collection from bucket dry privies in various towns viz. China, Ghana, India, Tanzania and the Netherlands. The study for India was entrusted to the Academy. The case illustration from India was related to scavengers who collect and dispose of human waste in Ghaziabad town, their internal organization, socio-economic relationships with the residents of the neighbourhood, and contribution to the town’s sanitation system. The role of local authority and privately employed scavengers and of private sector organizations was distinguished in all the stages of human excreta collection and disposal. The study report was presented by the Academy in the
International Workshop organised by Waste Consultants in Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)

The JICA awarded the Academy the feasibility study and preparation of Water Quality Management Plan for the
River Ganga in Varanasi City with an aim to reduce the pollution load in the river. The Academy carried out a
feasibility study under non-sewerage schemes for the city of Varanasi focusing on low cost sanitation programme
for slum communities to prevent open defecation and construction of new dhobighats and improvement of existing
ones to reduce discharge of pollutants to river Ganga. Other activities carried out were survey of slums and
Dhobighats, organising workshops for low cost sanitation and Dhobighats, Public Participation/Public Awareness
(PP/PA) activities with stakeholders, Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with representatives of Slum Areas and
preparation of Feasibility Report and Guidelines and a Manual for Low Cost Sanitation and Dhobighats.

World Bank

At the request of the World Bank, the Academy carried out evaluation of the status of Rural Water Supply Implementation in the scarcity villages in seven States of India, viz. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh.

Projects Completed and in Progress

Around 100 projects and studies relating to capacity building, water supply, water conservaton including rain water harvesting, sewerage, sewage treatment, low cost sanitation, biogas production from human and animal wastes, health and hygiene issues, waste management, etc., have been completed or in progress by the Academy which are sponsored/funded by the Central, State and Local Governments, Public and Private sector organizations, international institutions like UN-HABITAT, World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), etc, NGOs, Universities, and other related
institutes. Indeed, the capacity building and training is an integral part of most of the projects and studies
undertaken by the Academy.

Publications

The Academy has brought out several publications to its credit. The publication on “Social Marketing of Sanitation” seeks to serve as the link between UN-HABITAT and other agencies engaged in promoting socially and environmentally sustainable towns/cities and to provide shelter for the poor. The publication analyses the barriers in promoting sanitation and illustrates the experiences in social marketing with case studies from Asia and Africa and provide strategies and solutions. It is extremely useful for the professionals engaged in improving the quality of life by promoting sanitation and will be a guideline to the policy makers, field workers and experts in the area of water and sanitation for implementing the sanitation programme.

The Academy’s recent publication is on ‘Sanitation and Energy’ (under print) which provides an overview of sanitation and waste to energy conversion systems, and of technologies for producing and utilizing energy through conversion of human, animal and municipal wastes.

The Way Ahead

The Academy has kept its vision of becoming among the ‘World Leading Knowledge Hubs’ for facilitating appropriate, affordable, eco-friendly and culturally acceptable sanitation development, free from environmental pollution and bring social transformation in achieving the sanitation target set for the millennium development goal among the developing countries.